5 Tips about tree removal san diego You Can Use Today

Have You Ever Thought How Important Tree Trimming Is?
Tree trimming is an important task that needs to be carried out regularly, without fail. Tree trimming is not only good for the tree's growth, it is also important to trim trees at regular intervals so that they do not damage property and overhead wires. Huge trees often fall due to heavy rain and make the situation complex with the damages created on the adjacent properties. So such huge trees close to any residential buildings or industrial properties should be trimmed regularly.

Perfect Time For Tree Trimming

It is commonly said that tree trimming can be done whenever the saw is sharp. This is very true, as you do not need a specific time to trim trees. Dead branches and leaves need to be trimmed at all times to ensure the rest of the tree grows smoothly. Also, if a part of the tree is infected, it needs to be trimmed without delay. The infected part of the tree may spread the damage to other parts of the tree and sometimes to the adjacent trees as well. So the trees should be monitored regularly to find out any dead parts or insects affecting them. When such damaging insects are seen, it is recommended you remove the damaged part of the tree completely for the safety of the tree.

You also need to know what kind the trees are - whether they are flowering frees, shrubs, or plants. If it is a flowering tree, you have to be very careful with the tree trimming procedure. The majority of flowering trees deposit their blossoms on the previous year. Thus, they will not blossom if the flower buds are trimmed from the tree. The finest process is to always clip flowering trees within three weeks after they cease blossoming. That should stop you from unintentionally eliminating buds holding the blossoms for the following year. Season wise trimming of the trees can make the trees get healthy and yield more on the next blossoming season. Tree trimming will keep the trees healthy and can make them grow healthier.

There are some trees that cannot be pruned at every time of the year as well. They are:

� Maples - If trimmed at particular times of the year, a maple tree might "bleed" or drip as a result of the trimming. Bleeding is almost certain to take place when maples are trimmed in the seasons just prior to and subsequent to winter. Research has shown that "bleeding" does not wound the tree; therefore it turns out to be more of a surface concern. If you want to trim maple trees with no bleeding, it should be carried out whilst it is completely inactive in peak winter, or in spring or at summer time while it is in covered in leaf.

� Dogwoods - If you prune dogwoods during April or May, it might cause them to be further inclined to the dogwood borer. This insect ruthlessly spoils the vascular system of the tree once it finishes boring into the trunk of the dogwood tree.

� Oaks - Oaks must not be pruned from April to October, owing to the commonness of Oak Wilt disease pathogens through the time.

The Places At Which Trees Should Be Trimmed

Tree trimming may seem like an easy procedure on the surface, but you need to know exactly where to trim or else you may end up damaging the tree beyond repair. A novice engaged in tree trimming can cut off the branches in such a way that open stubs will remain and those will merrily turn into entry points for insects.

Dissimilar to human beings, trees do not redevelop tissues. As human skin restores itself, trees produce fresh tissue in the region of cut and group them. Once a tree groups a previous cut, it has an improved possibility of endurance. Care should also be taken not to hurt tree trunks with equipments such as lawnmowers, tractors and added machinery. Such injured trunks craft openings for vicious fungi. Trees can be trimmed with safer equipments like sharp saw and should be trimmed at the right places where the damages are seen or the growth has become excessive. Some of the trees blossom at very early age and so take off lot of water and energy supplied for their growth to make the blossom faster. In such cases, early blossom may block the growth of the tree and the complete growth of the tree will be impacted. In such cases, the early blossom can be trimmed and so the water and energy will be absorbed for the healthy growth of the tree.

A biological resistance method is developed into trees, in the inflamed part at the bottom of branches, called the "collar" - just where the trunk crisscrosses the branch. Even trims are vital to carry out, given you do not take away the collar. Proper tree trimming should be completed immediately ahead of the collar, exclusive of a stub, yet still leave the inflamed part.

Safety Measures

While carrying out a tree trimming expedition, you should be very careful so as to not hurt yourself or anyone around you. Tree branches are often extremely heavy and if they fall on you, can cause a lot of damage and the accidents can be fatal as well.

First and foremost, before you embark upon a tree trimming mission, judge the extent of work required to be put in. If the work is too much for you to handle, do not hesitate to call an expert. There are a number of firms that specialize in tree trimming. If you need the services of any one of these tree trimming firms, you can look on the Internet. Alternatively, you can also ask your friends and neighbors who have engaged professional tree trimmers in the past.

Tree Trimming Near Power Lines

This is a problem that has existed for years. Trees that are planted too near a power line grow tall and hit the wires overhead, causing serous damage. These damages can lead to troubles like the wires getting snapped (and consequently loss of power), fires and even trigger off a forest fire. As a result you need to be extremely cautious and get the trees trimmed regularly. In the outskirts of big cities or the forest areas having power lines, problem of free fall over the power lines are very common during heavy wind and rainy season. The tall trees often break at heavy wind, damage the power lines and create severe damages to the nearby properties. The damages created are so very huge when the power supply cause fire or click here electrical shocks on the stagnant water resources if available nearby. In such sensitive areas, either the power lining should be done with proper care taken or the tall trees trimmed regularly. Since the care of power lining may not be practically feasible, the tall trees can be monitored and trimmed regularly by the authorities responsible for the natural resource.

However, many argue that trees should not be planted near power lines in the first place. It is unwise to plant saplings near power lines as they will but obviously grow tall and reach for the wires. Similarly, while planting a tree, be careful not to plant them too close to property. This may lead to both the damage of the property and the tree in the days to come. Leave enough place for the tree and its branches to spread out and then only plant a sapling. After all, it is always wise to judge a problem at the root level, and in the case of tree trimming, this literally holds true! So be careful and cautious early on to help prevent any problems later on.

Tree Trimming Near Residential Properties

It is good to have a green neighborhood. But the dense trees grown taller may create trouble when fallen on the nearby properties. The tree fall may also cause damages to people staying in the smaller buildings in case of heavy wind and storms. To avoid such complications, it should be noted not to have trees planted densely in the residential locations. If planted, proper care should be taken to trim the trees regularly.

Having a woods-like neighborhood may be lovely to live in, but the serious problems caused by the tall trees should be taken care of properly, to make the living really lovely and interesting. Properly trimmed trees can make the living area look beautiful and make the location safe to live.

Top latest Five office moving Urban news

Moving can be extremely laborious, particularly if you own a great deal of things. Evacuating all your things, leasing a truck, filling the truck, driving to the brand-new location, and discharging everything ... This is all extremely lengthy. As a result, lots of people opt to employ a moving company to do all or part of it.

Regrettably, although working with a moving company can conserve you a lot of time and stress, working with the wrong moving company can add to it. To protect yourself and your belongings, you will have to understand how to pick a moving company.

When looking for a good moving company, here are a couple of things to consider.

1) Just how much of the move do you desire the moving company to handle?

The stating is that you can work with someone to do nearly anything for you - for a price. This is certainly real in this case. Lots of people opt to box up all their valuables themselves, and hire movers to load/unload the truck and transportation whatever. Some individuals, particularly if they are moving cross-country, might lease a truck and work with movers to box whatever up and load the truck, then do the driving themselves. Others work with movers to do absolutely everything, from loading packages to unloading it all into the correct spaces in the brand-new home.

2) What does it cost? are you budgeting for the move?

Obviously, everything that you have the moving company do will add to your costs. If you are on a tight budget, you may need to balance quality and convenience versus expense. This means that you may need to do a few of the work yourself, and employ movers who will just do the most tough parts - normally packing and driving the truck. Compare prices in between moving companies, and choose which will best suit your needs.

3) How far are you moving?

Long-distance relocations affect two things when choosing a moving company: the expense of the move, and the moving companies you need to choose from. Some regional companies might not have the ability to move you across state lines. For long-distance moves you will desire to hire a moving company enough in advance to make sure that they have accessibility.

4) Does the moving company insure your personal belongings against damage or loss?

You have a great deal of capital invested in your personal belongings. Think what does it cost? cash it would require to replace some or all of it if something were to occur during the relocation. Would you even be able to?

Numerous moving companies will just compensate a fraction of the value of your belongings if something occurs to them. Ask a moving company how much they spend for lost or harmed personal belongings, and make sure to get a copy of this policy in writing. If the moving company's policy doesn't provide sufficient coverage, you may wish to check out extra insurance coverage.

5) What kind of reputation does the moving company have?

We have actually all heard the horror stories of things turning up missing or broken after the movers have actually unpacked the truck and left. Just as you desire your valuables safeguarded from damage or loss, you also have to understand whether a moving company has a credibility for breaking or stealing things.

One way to research a moving company's credibility is to search for their name online. Look for both grievances and follow-ups, given that how the company managed the grievance is at least as crucial as the grievance itself. You should likewise check to see if the company belongs to the Better Business Bureau. Although the BBB will try to mediate a conflict even if the moving company is not a member, there is less reward for a non-member to work toward a resolution.

The length of time the business has actually been in business is also a great indicator of reputation. Business with bad track records usually don't stay in service for long, so a business that has actually been around for a long time would probably be a better option than one that just launched recently.

6) Can the moving company give you references?

A great moving company must have the ability to offer you with referrals upon request. Do inspect these recommendations, but also remember that just like specific, the moving company is likely to provide references that they know will be positive.

Naturally, without a doubt the best reference you can get is a recommendation from a pal or acquaintance. You are most likely better off using a moving company suggested by someone you understand, rather than one you have actually never become aware of before.

Last Tips for Picking a Moving Company

When you hire movers, you are putting a large part of your life in someone else's hands. Things like clothing, furnishings, and kitchenware are pricey, but considering that we usually collect them with time, most people don't understand what does it cost? money they have bound in their home products moving company until they have to replace them simultaneously.

Since there is so much depending on having great movers, understanding the best ways to pick a moving company is important. Before you begin contact moving companies for quotes, be sure to make a list of the questions you need to ask. This will help you remain focused throughout the discussion.

Keep in mind, your ownerships are important, so make visit site certain you find a moving company you can trust!

Qualities to Examine When Selecting the Finest Fence Company

A home functions as a reflection of individuals living inside it. Because of the reason that the choice of your house is ordained by your sensations, this is. You must spend adequate time in identifying things that need to be put in your home. Make sure that the exterior of your house looks special if you want to leave a long lasting impression on the visitors. Among the ways by which you can do this is by putting up an appealing fence. You will stumble upon lots of business that help in setting up fences but you should be really cautious while selecting one. There are particular things you ought to look for in a fencing company so that you can make the ideal choice.

The best fence company will supply the very best designs. This is the point where the experience of a company ends up being relevant. If the company has actually been in this market for a very long time then erecting a fence by fulfilling all your demands will not be a difficult job for them. Whether you need a vinyl, metal or wooden fence, the company will draw a best design. A experienced and credible fence company will also have a gallery of numerous styles that they have crafted for their earlier customers. This will help in picking the very best fencing style. By selecting a professional fence company you will not just find the finest fence designs you get recommendations on the right product that you should pick for your fence.

This company understands the finest materials that are available in the market. They understand which material will fit your demands. The trusted fence company will Fence OKC recommend you regarding whether you ought to use metal, wood or vinyl in your fence. The fences produced by a dependable entity are long lasting so you can use them for a a lot longer period. One of the most significant advantages of selecting the best company is that it provides guarantee on the fences they create. The right fence company is experienceded with available fencing guidelines and guidelines. Particular neighborhoods supply a decree of how fences need to be made. A perfect fence company uses detailed standards regarding the height and positioning of your fences.

Most policies are enforced by regional and city authorities. This symbolizes that the organization needs to make important assessment on whether there are rules causing establishment of a fence in your location. If you wish to pick the very best fence company, do not forget to have an appearance at the series of the services that the company provides.

Are you trying to find the best fence company? Pay attention to costs, quality and type of task so that your fencing needs can be fulfilled if yes.

You'll need a Dwelling Water Filtration Procedure To eliminate Dangerous Contaminants Out of your Drinking water Provide

If you don't personal a house h2o filtration process, you need to begin thinking of the opportunity of purchasing a person. The water encompassing us is extremely toxic and may lead to lots of illnesses. What used to be a 1 in 50 chance of obtaining cancer from contaminated h2o has now turn into a 1 in 3 opportunity.

The scary part is always that it will never get any far better.

While nearby h2o corporations filter the drinking water we drink, the gear utilised is amazingly primitive. This in essence means that bottled water and faucet water are essentially 1 in the same. Dwelling drinking water filtration, however, allows you to acquire Handle over the drinking water you utilize everyday. If you have Regulate more than your water, you have got Management over your overall health.

Working day in and day trip we expose ourselves to contaminants not very knowing the injury they might do. House drinking water filtration allows you to Command the purity of your water, which can provide you with assurance in regards to the drinking water you employ consistently. It is necessary to be familiar with how contaminants can affect our bodies. Becoming aware about how unfiltered h2o can harm us makes all the difference. The greater knowledgeable you're, the more you might take precaution.

If you consider it, h2o is utilized for A great deal more than ingesting. We use drinking water for cooking, gardening, showering together with other tasks. By having a residence h2o filtration procedure attached to your own home's most important inlet, you can have several years of pure water from every outlet. After a while, you will note and really feel the variations filtered water brings.

While the key benefits of filtered drinking water are immeasurable, quite a few customers think that dwelling water filtration just isn't required when bottled drinking water is obtainable for obtain. What several of those buyers don't know, however, is that the FDA only necessitates bottled water for being pretty much as good as tap h2o--not better.

Investing in a house drinking water filtration method is a wonderful way to give you comfort with regard to the h2o you employ Each and every and every working day. House filtration delivers much better high quality than bottled water While using the ease of tap h2o.

There are many items that can execute property water filtration. With this particular reported, it's important to avoid items for example distillers and reverse osmosis units. Both of those goods are quite too much, eliminating the contaminants, and also getting rid of the essential trace minerals Your entire body desires to function properly.

A high quality dwelling drinking water filtration technique differs. These types of filters take away contaminants like unstable organic compounds, MTBE, chlorine, direct and cysts, without the need of getting rid of the necessary trace minerals.

A trusted property h2o filtration technique will final close to 2 to three yrs just before a filter alternative is necessary, giving you refreshing and pure drinking water from It can be multi-stage filtration approach. A superb filter will use a mix of carbon filtration, ion Trade and sub-micron filtration. Some goods also incorporate potassium, which reinforces the mineral harmony, offering your h2o a all-natural spring-like taste.

Before making an financial commitment including this, it is always ideal to check with the corporate for your effectiveness report. Have a look at precisely what is taken out and Evaluate it to other goods. This will give you a good feeling of what you're obtaining, and how click here perfectly the filter performs its responsibilities.

If you are worried about your heath, make time to find out about how residence h2o filtration may help you live a protracted and nutritious existence, now and during the several years to come back. Generating an expense within a filter signifies producing an expense in you.

Tricky Drinking water Treatment Methods

Tricky water procedure solutions are grouped into 4 types according to how they work. All of them reduce, inhibit or get rid of limescale and each process has its very own advantages and drawbacks. Under is usually a synopsis of how each of your four types do the job, whatever they do, how they do it, and their advantages and drawbacks.

one) Actual physical Drinking water Conditioners

Physical Drinking water Conditioners, so named since they bodily change the Houses of tricky water to lower or eliminate limescale formation, are available three differing types - electronic, electrolytic and magnetic.

1a) Electronic water conditioners, also know as Digital descalers or limescale inhibitors, usually comprise of a little box of electronics and a number of coils wrapped across the pipework.

Whatever they do: Electronic conditioners do the job by transmitting an audio frequency or radio frequency signal in the h2o by way of induction coils wrapped round the pipework. This inhibits the Create up of limescale within drinking water pipes and through time, cuts down present scale. A softer scale may still type on shower heads, taps together with other surfaces, but is less of a challenge to wash.

Pros: Digital descalers are fairly low cost as compared with other tricky h2o treatment method approaches and give you a affordable solution to limescale troubles. No plumbing is necessary, generating them quite simple to setup. And since very little is removed or additional to the h2o, wholesome minerals are retained as well as h2o remains Protected to drink.

Cons: Even though often not as helpful as other therapy approaches, most suppliers present you with a full a refund warranty If your device doesn't perform along with anticipated.

1b) Electrolytic h2o conditioners are inline equipment that must be plumbed in to the h2o process. They can be bought with 15mm, 22mm, or 28mm close connectors to fit the pipework.

Whatever they do: Inside an electrolytic conditioner are two dissimilar metals, normally copper and zinc, which work as a cathode and an anode. The electrolytic existing that flows within the cathode for the anode triggers smaller quantities of steel ions to dissolve in to the drinking water. The metal ions then disrupt the positively billed scale forming particles so that they don't clump jointly and type scale.

Pros: Like electronic descalers, electrolytic scale inhibitors are somewhat low-priced to acquire. They don't have to have An electrical electricity source and so once-a-year functioning costs are zero. They provide entire property safety from limescale challenges and taken care of water is Protected to drink.

Drawbacks: Electrolytic h2o conditioners must be periodically replaced to keep up the entire standard of defense and, contrary to Digital conditioners, they need to be plumbed into your pipework, incorporating on the initial cost.

1c) Magnet water conditioners are available two types. They both clamp onto the outside of your pipework or are equipped inline Using the pipework in the same way as electrolytic softeners.

What they do: Magnetic conditioners operate in an analogous approach to electronic conditioners, but make use of a magnetic subject rather then An electrical discipline to change the characteristics of the size generating minerals while in the drinking water. Scale particles from the dealt with drinking water reduce their power to adhere to one another and also to pipes, boilers and other inner surfaces.

Benefits: Magnetic conditioners are quite popular due to their reasonably low price. The clamping sort is easy to fit and normally just demands tightening on to the pipework using a spanner. They don't require any electrical ability and so working prices are zero.

Negatives: Magnetic conditioners are generally not ideal for full home safety, only single appliances. Some magnetic conditioners have to be plumbed to the pipework plus they all have to be replaced periodically to keep up whole performance.

2) Chemical Water Conditioners

Chemical water conditioners drop into two types, packaged softeners and dosing methods. Packaged softeners is often further more break up into precipitating and non-precipitating kinds. The principal utilization of packaged softeners is to melt drinking water for washing apparel

2a) Precipitating packaged softeners consist of washing soda and borax. Though borax has numerous uses around the home, the leading function of packaged softeners is for washing clothing and therefore they aren't ideal for full household h2o softening and taken care of h2o just isn't match to consume.

Whatever they do: Precipitating softeners soften the water by combining with calcium and magnesium ions present in really hard water. This results in the mineral ions to precipitate out, making sure that they do not interfere Along with the washing method.

Advantages: Low cost, convenient to use softener that, in addition to softening, also cleans and deodorises. Adding borax or washing soda towards the wash, will also avoid limescale Create-up from the washing machine.

Down sides: Precipitating softeners make the h2o cloudy and might cling to resources while in the wash. In addition they boost the alkalinity from the drinking water, which often can injury skin and many fabrics.

2b) Non-precipitating softeners consist of goods which include calgon plus much more typically made use of than precipitating softeners. Like all packaged softeners, These are only intended to be used inside the laundry.

The things they do: They work through the use of phosphates, which respond with the calcium and magnesium ions in difficult drinking water and holds them in Remedy.

Strengths: As the identify indicates, non-precipitating softeners tend not to sort a precipitate and Hence the drinking water remains distinct. They don't boost the alkalinity on the water and in order that they're Secure to work with with all fabrics.

Drawbacks: Generally more expensive than precipitating softeners and never so eco friendly as a consequence of their superior phosphate articles.

2c) Phosphate dosing systems comprise of the cartridge of phosphate held in a container that's equipped for the plumbing method. Drinking water passing with the cartridge is dosed with modest portions of phosphate which softens the water.

The things they do: Like non-precipitating softeners, they perform by introducing phosphates on the water. On the other hand, in dosing techniques, food grade polyphosphates are utilised. The polyphosphates work as a sequester to stop the hardness minerals in really hard h2o from precipitating out.

Strengths: Dosing programs normally Expense inside the region of £sixty to get, moreover installation fees. Whilst usually only used for single equipment security, they can offer total household treatment.

Down sides: Most of the people favor not to get phosphates of their drinking drinking water, even if they are food stuff grade safe. Substitute cartridges incur extra yearly working costs of in between £30 and £60.

three) Mechanical Drinking water Softeners

Mechanical H2o Softeners, or ion Trade softeners as Also they are know, are correct drinking water softeners. Actual physical and chemical conditioners, While sometimes called 'softeners', never take out hardness minerals in the water; they merely avert them from precipitating out or from sticking to surfaces. The only true way to melt tricky h2o is to get rid of the calcium and magnesium minerals which make it tricky. Only ion Trade softeners, and a few filter treatment method strategies, do that.

What they do: Ion exchange softeners function by swapping negative hardness ions in difficult drinking water with optimistic sodium atoms in a resin contained throughout the softener. Periodically, the resin ought to be regenerated to get rid of the Develop up of hardness minerals. This is done by flushing the resin with brine. Throughout the regeneration method, household water is diverted round the softener and so only really hard h2o is obtainable. This is often Generally established to occur in the night. Alternatively, two resin tanks can be used, with a person regenerating though the other is in provider.

Rewards: Ion exchange softeners provide all the advantages of genuinely delicate h2o for The full residence.

Shortcomings: The principle downsides with ion exchange softeners are that they are high priced to acquire, high priced to run and can take up a large amount of room (Usually on the kitchen area). An additional disadvantage is dealt with water is made up of sodium (salt). Having said that, they produce definitely comfortable drinking water and challenges with sodium while in the h2o may be settled by leaving a person outlet in your house untreated.

4) Drinking water Filters

Drinking water filters are available quite a few styles and guises from stand-by itself jugs to fully built-in reverse osmosis models. The three commonest styles located in United kingdom properties that could take out calcium and magnesium from challenging drinking water are carbon resin filters, reverse osmosis units and drinking water distillers. There are many other sorts of filter readily available, but they do not develop comfortable water.

Since filtered water is normally only offered from just one outlet, drinking water filters do not alleviate really hard water challenges throughout the rest of the household. Limescale deposits will nevertheless exist from the plumbing and heating system and on faucets, showerheads along with other surfaces.

4a) Carbon resin filters are Commonly utilised at the side of activated carbon filters. The carbon resin eliminates hardness minerals through the drinking water plus the activate carbon filter then filters out chemical compounds.

What they do: Carbon resin filters use an ion Trade resin to website get rid of hardness minerals through the water in a similar way to mechanical drinking water softeners. An activated carbon filter then removes chlorine and various chemical compounds to improve the flavor and do away with odours.

Rewards: Pleasant tasting, cheap, chlorine absolutely free, comfortable h2o.

Negatives: In contrast to mechanical drinking water softeners, the ion Trade resin isn't regenerated and builds up contaminants right until it should get replaced. The charcoal filter also requirements periodic alternative and like all filter methods, they do not give a practical Resolution to limescale complications in other places in your house.

4b) Reverse osmosis systems are Maybe the most popular style of filter for household water remedy. Whilst RO techniques will take away calcium and magnesium ions from challenging water, they are not Usually installed purely for this purpose. Many residences with smooth water have RO units. Most dwelling homeowners acquire reverse osmosis systems to acquire cleaner, purer, h2o than is Generally accessible from their drinking water provider.

Whatever they do: Reverse osmosis filters operate by forcing h2o through a semi-permeable membrane which filters out impurities. The membrane has microscopic holes through which water molecules can pass, but larger sized particles and molecules (such as the hardness minerals) are blocked.

Pros: Together with correctly removing most contaminants, RO handled drinking water tastes far better, enhances the flavour of drinks like espresso, tea and fruit squashes. And in challenging drinking water parts, domestic appliances such as steam irons, espresso makers and kettles, will not likely suffer from the traditional scaling.

Disadvantages: The most crucial downside with reverse osmosis units is they use a lot of h2o. Regular RO filter units purify only ten percent with the drinking water that enters the system; The remainder is piped to squander. This helps make them unsuitable for whole dwelling water procedure. Also, filter cartridges as well as the RO membrane require periodic cleaning / alternative (occasionally by a specialist). Difficult water also lessens the lifetime of the RO membrane. With filter replacements usually costing amongst £one hundred fifty and £seven-hundred, they can also be costly to maintain.

4c) Drinking water distillers generate the purest drinking water attainable. Appliance for the house appear to be significant kettles, while bigger beneath-counter units are offered for business premises and dental surgeries.

Whatever they do: Distillers get the job done by boiling drinking water into steam, which then condenses back into drinking water and is also collected in a very storage container. Impurities from the drinking water are not transformed into steam and so only pure water condenses into your storage container. Contaminants are left guiding while in the boiling chamber, which may then be cleaned with Distinctive crystals.

Strengths: Distillers provide the purest drinking water revenue can purchase. They may have all some great benefits of reverse osmosis filters furthermore some others. The water they make is purer than bottled drinking water, normally on faucet and there isn't any heave bottles to hold back again within the grocery store.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15